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Pechora

Summary

Summary

Administrative center: town of Pechora. 

Area: 28,900 km2

Bordering districts: Izhma, Inta, Usinsk, Vuktyl and Sosnogorsk Districts of the Komi Republic.

Population: 53,400. 

Major industries: oil production, power engineering.

Official website of the municipal district: http://www.pechoraonline.ru/

 

The Pechora Municipal District is located in the northeast of the Komi Republic and borders on the Vuktyl, Pechory, Ukhta, Izhma, Troitsko-Pechorsk and Ust-Kulom Districts. Founded: March 11, 1941.

Pechory District is where Byzovaya, one of the oldest human settlements in the Komi Republic, is located. In the Old Stone Age (the Paleolithic), 25,000-28,000 years ago, a large number of mammoth hunters camped there. It's quite likely that the first people settled within the present district even earlier, 36,000 or 100,000-120,000 years ago, moving north along the Ural Mountains towards the banks of the Usa and Adzva Rivers (where archaeologists found their traces). Byzovaya boasted a really convenient location for our remote ancestors. In the Middle Stone Age (the Mesolithic), 10,000-8,000 years ago, there were four settlements in Topyd-Nyur, with another settlement of Zybun-Nyur nearby. People lived there in the Copper and Bronze Age, the Early Iron Age, the Early Middle Ages. In general, the Pechory District is replete with archaeological finds dating back to the 3rd millennium BC ― 1st millennium AD and testifying that the surrounding areas of what today is Konetsbor, Aranets, Peschanka, and Medvezhskaya were inhabited in those old days. Artefacts recently found near Aranets date back to the early centuries of the 2nd millennium AD.

Until the mid-18th century, there were no permanent settlements within the modern Pechory District. Nomad tribes of Ugric and Samoyed people, who were reindeer herders, travelled across these sites. It wasn’t until the second half of the 18th century that the situation changed. Between 1747 and 1784, the site called Danilovka was settled by people from the Upper Pechora and probably from the Upper Vychegodsk. In 1776, Aranets was founded by settlers from Savinobor. In addition, the area was settled by Izhma Komi, who founded Ust-Kozhva in 1795. Local legend has it that Ust-Tsilma people founded Sokolovo (alternatively, the village was founded by natives of Siberia who were Old Believers too). Until 1780, the Pechory District was included in the Schugorskya Volost of the Yarensk Uyezd and the Izhma Volost of the Pustozersk Uyezd. In 1780, the Pustozersk Uyezd was disbanded; the territory of Pechora became part of the Mezen Uyezd. Yarensk joined the newly established Ust-Sysolsk District.

In the first half of the 19th century, Konetsbor and Krasny Yag were founded in the southern "Ust-Sysolsk" part of the Pechory District, with Medvezhskaya in 1859, Byzovaya in 1898, and Priuralskoye added in the 20th century. All these settlements belonged to the Schugorskaya Volost. In 1891, the northern part of the region was included in the new Pechory Uyezd and constituted the Ust-Kozhva Volost, where Rodionovo and Ulyashevo were established in 1898 and the early 20th century respectively.

The local population was engaged in fishing and reindeer husbandry in the north. Despite the fact that new villages were emerging, there were generally not so many of them. Besides, they were quite small in size. There were no large settlements or towns. Having visited the place, where the town of Pechora is now located, in 1903, V. Rusanov, a prominent explorer of the North, wrote in his diary: “Will the time come when a town and a beautiful park will be built on the opposite bank of the Pechora River and working people will admire the picturesque scenery?” This time came almost half a century later.

In 1918, the southern part of the present Pechory District was included in the Cherdyn Uyezd of the Perm Governorate, further in the Troitsko-Pechorsk District of the Perm Governorate in 1920-1922, in the Ust-Kulom Uyezd (district since 1929) of the Komi Autonomous Region in 1922, in the new Troitsko-Pechorsk District of the Komi Autonomous Region in 1931. In 1921, the North (Ust-Kozhva Volost) became part of the Izhmo-Pechorsky Uyezd (district since 1929) of the Komi Autonomous Region, the new Ust-Usinsk District in 1932. In 1936, when the Pechory Region, which united several Uyezds centered in Ust-Usa, was established, the southern part of the present Pechory District was included in the region from the Troitsko-Pechorsk District.

On March 11, 1941, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR issued a decree “On the establishment of the Kozhva District as part of the Pechory Region of the Komi ASSR” which established the Kozhva District with the administrative center in the settlement of Kozhva as part of the Pechory Region of the Komi ASSR.

On April 27, 1959, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR issued a decree “On the renaming of the Kozhva District and the abolition of the Ust-Usinsk District of the Komi ASSR” which included the Kozhva District and the territory of the abolished Ust-Usinsk District in the Pechory District with the administrative center in the town of Pechora.

Attractions

Attractions

Yugyd Va National Park

Югыд ва

The Pechora region is famous for the Yugyd Va National Park (light water), the largest specially protected natural area in Russia and Europe (total area is 1,891,701 hectares, including a 21,421-hectare water area). The Park is located on the western hillsides of the Nether-Polar and Northern Urals in three districts of the Komi Republic (Vuktyl, Pechory and Inta Districts). The Park was established in 1994 to preserve the unique natural complexes of the Ural North. The complexes have a special environmental, historical and aesthetic value, and are intended for environmental, educational and scientific purposes and regulated tourism. National parks are open to tourists and available for limited human activities.

Yugyd Va is a land of numerous mountain lakes, unique glaciers (glaciers at such a relatively low altitude cannot be found anywhere else in the world), the highest and the most beautiful peaks of the Urals: Narodnaya, Sablya, Managara, Kolokolnya. Park boasts great biodiversity. Yugyd Va is a genuine taiga treasury. More than 40 species of mammals, including brown bear, sable, moose, reindeer, are found there.

In 1995, the Yugyd Va National Park and the Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve was the first natural site in Russia to be included in the UNESCO World Heritage List under the umbrella name “Komi Virgin Forests”. 

Byzovaya Paleolithic Site

Палеолитическая стоянка Бызовая

Discovered in 1962, the historical site was explored by scientists of the Komi Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union including archaeologist V. Kanivets, involving geologists B. Guslitser and E. Timofeev in 1963-1968. Since 1983, the site has been explored by P. Pavlov, an expert in the Paleolithic of the Urals and North-East of Europe recognized both in Russia and abroad
It is one of the oldest sites in European North. It is located on the fluvial terrace in a steep bight of the Pechora River. The site was named after the nearby village of Byzovaya.

It is a typical mammoth “grave”. The cultural remains found on Byzovaya Site are a specific set of stone tools including knives, scrapers, original large bone crushers. Very similar tools were found on the sites of the Early Upper Paleolithic of the central regions of the Russian Plain and Central Europe (Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia). The first hunters presumably migrated from here to the banks of the Pechora River.

According to features specified Pavlov draw a conclusion that early people used this natural mammoth “grave” both to obtain ornamental material including tusks and bones, and to replenish food supplies. Apparently, the site was regularly visited by people.

V. Rusanov Monument

Памятник В.А. Русанову
The major landmark of Pechora is a monument to the polar explorer Vladimir Rusanov. The monument was erected in 1967 by Yury Borisov, the famous sculptor in the Komi Republic. It depicts a life-size figure of Rusanov gazing into the distance at the banks of the water-abundant Pechora River. Ilya Vylko, a local guide, sitting at the stern, sails the boat. The pedestal has a carved inscription: “To V. Rusanov, the explorer of the Pechora Region.”

Vladimir Rusanov was a prominent polar explorer of the early 20th century. In 1901, he was convicted of revolutionary activity and exiled for two years in Ust-Sysolsk, where he served as a statistician in the Zemstvo administration. This work enabled him to explore the vast and almost unexplored Pechora area. In 1903, sailing down the Pechora River, he writes in his diary: “The time will come when a town and a beautiful park will be built on the opposite bank of the Pechora River and working people will admire the picturesque scenery.” These words were carved on the monument.

Ilya Vylko, Rusanov’s fellow traveler, is as remarkable. He was a regional researcher and an enlightener, a pioneer of the Nenets literature and an artist. He accompanied Rusanov in his expedition in 1909-1911.

Railway bridge across the Pechora River

Железнодорожный мост через реку Печору
On October 28, 1937, the Council of People's Commissars resolved to build the North Pechora Railway. The Pechora River was one of the biggest obstacles to the construction. As far back as 1938, a route of the future bridge was laid out, with the adjacent forest cut down and caisson works started. 400 meters below the bridge section, an ice crossing was built, which rested on piles driven into the bed of the river to move north in the winter of 1940-1941.

According to the project, the bridge was to consist of 8 superstructures 88 m each. A shortage of metal for trusses was a major challenge, so Howe wooden trusses designed at the Pechora Forest Plant were used. In April 1942, all bridge construction works as a stopgap were completed. That summer, the road was put into temporary operation. After long-lasting testing, first trains ran over the bridge.

Nazi Germany understood clearly that the North Pechora Railway and the Pechora Bridge were of great strategic importance. On June 6, 1943, in the area of the Kedrovy Shor agricultural camp, a German paratrooper was dropped to blow up the bridge across the Pechora River, raise an uprising in the camps and thereby organize a “second front” in the rear. However, the saboteurs failed their mission. Recruited Soviet war prisoners, the paratroopers surrendered after landing, derailing the plans of the fascist command.

In 1944, the replacement of temporary superstructures started. By the time, steel of the knocked-down frame of the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow, which was used to manufacture superstructure parts, began to arrive at the Kotlas Bridge Factory. In 1946, there were no longer any wooden structures on the bridge across the Pechora. In 1950, the bridge was put into continuous operation. However, there were 2 additional bearings in the middle of the Pechora Canal installed in 1941 due to the lack of designed trusses. In 1952-1953, four trusses mismatching the design length were replaced, with two defective ones replaced in 1954. The bridge has not been reconstructed ever since, traffic has never been interrupted, and the silhouette of the bridge began to resemble a train of cars of different types and two platforms.

 

Kamenka Rocks Geological Reserve

Геологический заказник «Скалы Каменки»It was established by Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic No. 193 as of September 26, 1989. It is located in the lower reaches of the Ydzhid-Kamenka River (Bolshaya Kamenka), a tributary of the Kozhva River. The protected area includes a 10-kilometer stretch of the river from the mouth to the road bridge (Izyayu – Berezovka road) 200 m wide on both banks. The reserve was created to protect the landscapes of the Ydzhyd-Kamenka Valley, Upper Devonian and Carboniferous rock outcrops, rich in organic residues with bituminous and oil-bearing capacity, hydrogen sulfide sources. The Pechora Lowland is a lowland plain with a thick bed cover. The picturesque canyon-like valley of the Ydzhid-Kamenka River with outcrops of the Paleozoic deposits has a great scientific and educational value.

There are hydrogen sulfide springs (three large and four small springs) on the left bank of the Ydzhid-Kamenka River. Milk-white hydrogen sulfide waters with a temperature of 3.8-6.3 ° C have a complex composition including both cationic and anionic surfactants with a variable predominance of chloride or bicarbonate anion and magnesium, pH = 7.5-8.7. The waters belong to the group of mineral hydrogen sulfide and have therapeutic properties.

The unique combination of the protected natural geological area with picturesque cliffs and the proximity of large settlements, railways and highways, makes it possible to use geological sites in educational tourism in the Komi Republic.

Pechora Virgin Women’s Monastery

Печорский Богородицкий Скоропослушнический женский монастырь
The monastery was founded in 1992 by hieromonk Pitirim (now the Archbishop of Syktyvkar and Komi-Zyrian). The monastery was founded after a miraculous appearance of the Quick to Hearken Icon of the Mother of God in the sky over the site in 1992, showing where to build the monastery. That August, hegumen Pitirim saw Virgin Mary walking on the ground near the church in honor of the icon, under construction at the time, towards the procession. On the ground where the Queen of Heaven set her foot, a memorial cross was immediately installed with a well dug. In February 1993, the monastery was given a synodal blessing.

 

Daryal Radar Station

РЛС «Дарьял»Pechora Radar Station, a missile early warning system, ensures the aerospace security of Russia.

Developed as part of the preliminary design in 1968, the Daryal radar project is still unparalleled. It is the second generation of the Soviet Daryal-type radar. The project was developed by a group of employees of the Radiotechnical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Soviet Union headed by V. Ivantsov.

The construction began in the summer of 1975. Its scale is striking. About 13,000 military builders, several thousand civilian specialists from different ministries and departments, about a thousand military personnel of the military base were involved in the construction of Pechora Radar Station. Along with the construction, installation and commissioning work was carried out, the site was provided with various equipment and weaponry. In 1980-1983, the radar station was tested. On March 20, 1984, military unit 69876 entered combat duty. The Pechora Daryal became one of the main elements of the USSR missile early warning system.

Pechora Radar Station is currently functional, defending the most dangerous and critical areas ― the north and northwest. This meter wave radar station monitors trajectories of ballistic missiles of the NATO countries, keeping Canada, most of the USA, Western Europe under control. It is capable of detecting and simultaneously tracking about 100 targets the size of a soccer ball at ranges up to 6,000 km. About 30,000 objects go through the Daryal Radar Station coverage every day. In recent years, almost all station systems have been modernized under the rearmament program to increase its reliability, technical and tactical characteristics and significantly reduce energy consumption.

Places to visit

Pechora Museum of History and Local Lore

The museum was officially opened on June 29, 1975. In 1977, it received the status of a state museum and became a branch of the Komi Republican Museum of History and Local Lore, and in 1993 the museum acquired independence and is subordinate to the municipality.

Address: 33 Sovetskaya Street, Pechora.
Tel: +7 (82142) 7-78-70, 7-62-88

 

Gorky Cinema

Address: 16A Sovetskaya Street, Pechora.
Tel: +7 (82142) 3-76-06
E-mail: kinoteatrgorkogo@yandex.ru

Fast facts

The Pechory District is partly located in the Yugyd Va National Park (which is Komi for “clear water”), the first natural site in Russia included in the UNESCO World Heritage List under the umbrella name “Komi Virgin Forests” together with the Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve (1995).

Yugyd Va is a land of numerous mountain lakes, unique glaciers (glaciers at such a relatively low altitude cannot be found anywhere else in the world), the highest and the most beautiful peaks of the Urals: Narodnaya, Sablya, Managara, Kolokolnya The Yugyd Va National Park is situated on the western slopes of the Subpolar and Northern Urals, on the territory of three regions of the Komi Republic (Vuktyl, Pechory and Inta).

In 1962 (or in 1957, according to other sources), a Paleolithic encampment was discovered near the town of Pechora, which was named after the nearby village of Byzovaya. It is one of the oldest sites in European North and a typical mammoth “grave”. Besides fragments of the mammoth skeleton, the excavation revealed bones of woolly rhinoceros, reindeer, horse, musk ox, wolf, bear, polar fox, lemmings, as well as scrapers, knives, arrowheads and other stone artifacts. According to radiocarbon dating, the site is 29,000-31,000 years old. According to the average weighted estimate of the luminescent analysis, mineral deposits are 32,000 years old. The identification of the stone tools found in Byzovaya suggests that Neanderthals lived there.

The Pechora town gates and the monument to its builders ― Gulag prisoners ― the railway bridge across the Pechora River. The bridge was of great strategic importance not only in the development of Pechora itself and the surrounding territories, but also in the life of the Republic and the whole country in the tough wartime. Each coal train from Vorkuta and Inta running over the bridge across the Pechora River made a significant contribution to the Victory. Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel in 1977-1983, Nobel Prize winner in 1978, was one of the Gulag prisoners who built the bridge.

 

Directions

BY AIR

There are regular flights from Syktyvkar, the capital of the Republic (UTair Express, Komiaviatrans).

Flight schedule  komiaviatrans.ru

TRAIN 

The railway connects cities and towns of Komi and Russia. You can get to Pechora:

from Moscow ― by Moscow – Vorkuta train (travel time ― 40 h)

from Syktyvkar ― by Syktyvkar ― Pechora train (travel time ― 15 h 13 min)

By Syktyvkar ― Vorkuta train (travel time ― 15 h 29 min), etc.

There are three ways to get to Pechora from St. Petersburg, all with a change:

Saint Petersburg ― Ukhta ― Pechora

Saint Petersburg ― Kotlas ― Pechora

St. Petersburg ― Syktyvkar ― Pechora, etc. 

(Pechora ― Inta-1 train).

 

 

BUS/CAR

The road network is poorly developed. The ice road connects the Pechora Municipal District with the neighboring districts. The bus service is available within the district. Bus service connecting Pechora with Syktyvkar is not available.

You can get to the settlements located along the banks of the Pechora River by water.