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Ukhta

Summary

Summary. 

Administrative center: Ukhta. 

Area: 13,300 km2 

Bordering districts: Ust-Kulom, Knyazhpogostsky, Izhma, Kortkeros, Sosnogorsk Districts of the Komi Republic.

Population: 120,500

Leading industries: oil production, oil and gas transportation, oil refining, mining, engineering, manufacturing of building materials.

Official website of the municipal district: http://mouhta.ru/

The Ukhta Urban District is located in the center of the Komi Republic and borders on the Ust-Kulom, Knyazhpogostsky, Izhma, Kortkeros, Sosnogorsk Districts of the Komi Republic. Founded: April 15, 1939.

The first people most likely appeared on the territory of the municipality in the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age, 10,000-8,000 years ago). No early man sites have yet been discovered in the district, but there are a few of them nearby, in the Sosnogorsk District. In the New Stone Age (7,000-5,000 years ago) and in subsequent epochs, people lived near the Ukhta River and other rivers of the region. This was evidenced by the Ukhta site, the site in the Sediyuskaya Cave, and ancient treasures and individual jewelry and tool finds discovered by archaeologists.

The first of the existing settlements appeared here in the second half of the 18th century. In the pre-revolutionary period, most of the district was part of the Pechory Uyezd of the Arkhangelsk Governorate.

The population was mostly engaged in cattle breeding and hunting. Researcher V. Latkin, who visited the headwaters of the Izhma River in 1843, wrote that the inhabitants “live quite good, have livestock, hunt black grouse and squirrels in the forests. They feel comfortable about living in a desert far away from a pogost. They don’t need a lot to be happy: a warm house, bread, livestock, taxes paid and they are happy in this wilderness.”

The Ukhta River gained world fame thanks to oil. Oil used by the Chudes living in the area was first mentioned in the Dvina Chronicle of the 15th century. The first attempts to produce and process local oil were made by F. Pryadunov in the mid-18th century, but they failed: the merchant went bankrupt, with a small plant built on the Ukhta River shut down. In 1914, oil was first produced on the territory of the present town. The 1916 survey showed a great future for oil exploration near the Chibyu River. In the summer of 1918, another geological expedition visited Ukhta. In 1920, the Arkhangelsk National Economic Council decided to develop oilfield near the Chibyu River again; it was supposed to build a “cultural, healthy village”, to produce and process oil, send it on special vessels down the Ukhta, Izhma, Pechora Rivers to the sea, and further to Arkhangelsk. In 1920-1921, this was partially put into practice. The oilfield operated until 1924 and provided the population of Izhma with kerosene.

In 1929, an expedition of the Joint State Political Directorate started the construction of a camp called Chibyu at the mouth of the Chibyu River. By the spring of 1930, the first oil well was built; six months later, the well produced an oil influx. Chibyu became a large settlement soon. In July 1939, Chibyu was renamed Ukhta. In the same year, a thermal power station was launched, an oil refinery was put into operation, replacing the former primitive structure.

Due to a significant population growth, on April 15, 1939, the independent Ukhta District was established with the center in Ukhta. On November 20, 1943, the worker's settlement of Ukhta obtained the city status.

 

Attractions

Историческая часть города
Historical area of Ukhta

The pearl of Ukhta is its historical area, which took shape by the 1950s with the best urban traditions incorporated. The cultural heritage is represented by architectural ensembles and buildings of 1937-1958, after forming the historical core of the city and the construction based on individual and standard, substantially revised projects. Talented architects such as L. Levitan, K. Levin, A. Orlov, P. Murzin, N. Zhizhimontov and many other architects and builders worked here at the time.

Eternal Flame Memorial

Памятный знак «Вечный огонь»
Eternal Flame Memorial

A memorial to the Ukhtins who died in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). Installed in 1980. Completed in 1984. Located in the park on the Ukhta River at the intersection of Mira and Oktyabrskaya Streets.

Designed by architects O. Ni and A. Sanin.

The memorial is a five-pointed star in a circle 14 m in diameter. 15-meter-high planes rise from its points, symbolizing dipped flags. The vertical planes are attached to a ring with a wreath depicted on the inside and 5 Orders of the Patriotic War depicted on the outside. In the center of the memorial, the fire of Eternal Glory is burning in memory of the Ukhtins who died in battles for their homeland. There are eight granite stands with symbolic texts on the square in front of the memorial. Russian is on the right and Komi is on the left.

 

Memorial to Students of the Ukhta School who Died in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)

Памятный знак воспитанникам ухтинской школы, погибшим на фронтах Великой Отечественной войны (1941-1945 гг.)
Memorial to Students of the Ukhta School who Died in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)

Opened on June 2, 1972. Located in the Children's Park in Ukhta. Sculptor ― Antanas Ambrulevičius. It was reconstructed in 1993. The monument is located in the center of the main alley of the Children's Park on a round platform, which used to be called the Pioneer Glory Square.

The memorial consists of two overlapping reinforced concrete slabs. The larger one has bas-reliefs of a pioneer and a soldier over dipped flags symbolizing sorrow, with the names of the dead and a bas-relief of a pioneer and Eternal Flame on the smaller one.

 

Monument to Soldiers Who Died in Local Wars and Military Conflicts

Памятная стела воинам, погибшим в локальных войнах и конфликтах
Monument to Soldiers Who Died in Local Wars and Military Conflicts

Located near the building on 18 Lenin Avenue. Unveiled on August 14, 1999. The monument was initiated by veterans of the Soviet–Afghan War. Architect ― L. Fedosov, artist ― O. Nechaev. The base of the monument is made of concrete by Komistroymost. The memorial is faced with red granite and white marble. The vertical stele has an embossed metal symbolic composition. There is also an inscription with three-dimensional block letters: "Eternal memory to Ukhta residents who died in Afghanistan and the Chechen Republic.”

Cemetery for the Victims of Political Repression, First Builders of Ukhta

Кладбище политических репрессированных, первостроителей города Ухты
Cemetery for the Victims of Political Repression, First Builders of Ukhta

The cemetery was forming in 1929-1970. Located in the south of the town. Consists of two sections on the right bank of the Chibyu River (second floodplain terrace). The second section is located 300 m east of the first one down Zagorodnaya Street. Burials on the main site of the cemetery are erratic. Most graves have a metal fence and different types of funerary monuments: crosses, tombstones, obelisks, steles.

Prisoners who died in prison or were executed were buried here. After UkhtIzhmalag was closed, it was used as a municipal cemetery until 1975.

Honorary citizens of Ukhta, the first builders of the town, mostly serving their sentences in or exiled to Ukhta, were buried here. Burial sites of more than 45 scientists and artists were discovered in the memorial cemetery. In 1950, Ivan Kosolapkin (a drilling foreman born in 1875) was buried in the cemetery. Since 1906, he worked at the oilfields in Grozny. In 1929, more than 60 loaded freight cars with drilling equipment were transferred to the North from railway station in Grozny. In Arkhangelsk, Ivan Kosolapkin boarded a steamboat to the Ukhta River. He arrived on October 30, a few weeks after the first detachment of the large geological survey expedition landed on the site to deploy the search for oil, gas and coal at north latitudes. Late in November, the drilling foreman from Grozny and the geologist Tikhanovich sank Well No. 5 and supervised its drilling. A year later, the Chibyu oilfield was discovered to become the first oilfield in the European North of Russia. He was among the first to be awarded the Ukhta Shock Worker badge, which used to be given for super productivity in the Far North development, and the honorary title “Master of Socialist Labor”.

Monument to Innocents Murdered on Zabolotnaya Street

Памятный знак невинно убиенным на улице Заболотной
Monument to Innocents Murdered on Zabolotnaya Street

Memorial to Prisoners of Stalin’s Terror was erected at the entrance to the city on the Ukhta-Syktyvkar highway in 1991. During political repressions, here was a building of a pre-trial detention center (prison No. 2) of the Cheka Department of the Ukhta camps and the burial place of executed prisoners.

The concrete monument was designed by architect Leonid Fedosov. It has a metal plate reading: “To innocents murdered during political repression. Passerby, bow your head in memory of those whose ashes are in this ground. Ukhta Memorial.”

Monument to Pioneers of the North

Памятный знак «Первопроходцам Севера»
Monument to Pioneers of the North

On August 21, 1929, the Geological Survey Expedition of the Joint State Political Directorate with a crew of 125 people organized in Arkhangelsk landed on the high left bank of the Ukhta River. The expedition's mission was oil, gas, coal exploration in the Ukhta region. This was when Chibyu was built by prisoners as a base settlement for oil and gas exploration and production. Chibyu was mainly populated by exiled settlers and prisoners. The memorial is located on the left bank of the Ukhta River, opposite the buildings of the Ukhta Mechanical Plant.

A composition of three reinforced concrete structures: a stele, two stylized drilling rigs, 2.3 and 1.5 meters high. The stele has a commemorative plaque reading: “Order on the Ukhta Expedition No. 1 of August 21, 1929. On this date, the expedition I am in charge of arrived at its destination on the Chibyu Stream. Sidorov, Expedition Commander”. On the back of the stele is a vertical inscription: “To Pioneers of the North”.

Pushkin Monument

Памятник А.С. Пушкину
Pushkin Monument

Located at the intersection of Oktyabrskaya and Pushkin Streets.

The monument was designed by Nikolay Bruni coming from the famous dynasty of Antonio Bruni, during his sentence in Ukhtpechlag, Chibyu.

Baroffi Bruni was a Swiss national who fled to Russia in 1808 and lived in Tsarskoye Selo, an academician of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts. His son Fedor, rector of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, is also famous for his painting of Pushkin a day after his death. A century later, his descendant created a sculpture of the great poet.

The monument made of improvised materials such as brick and gypsum was created in 1937 on the order of Ya. Moroz, the commander of Ukhtpechlag, to mark the centenary year of the poet’s death.

In 1997, artists of Ukhta including V. Vasyakhin, V. Maslov and A. Timushev restored the monument to Pushkin at the request of the Culture Department. In 1999, the monument was cast in bronze by the St. Petersburg foundry. On June 6, 1999, Ukhta became the celebration center of the poet’s 200th birthday anniversary in the Komi Republic. On that day, the monument to Pushkin was unveiled.

The first oil well in Russia drilled in 1868-1871 by geologist M. Sidorov

Место первой нефтяной скважины в России, пробуренной в 1868-1871 гг. геологом М.К. Сидоровым
The first oil well in Russia drilled in 1868-1871 by geologist M. Sidorov

The memorial is located on the left bank of the Ukhta River, near the Neftyel Stream, not far from Vodny. The first North oil exploratory well. In 1968, the wooden wellhead was destroyed in a fire. In April 1969, a memorial was erected on this site. Architect O. Ni.

Dmitry Bushuev Monument

Памятник Дмитрию Бушуеву
Dmitry Bushuev Monument

Built on the grounds of the former school No. 11 at 2 Bushuev Street. Erected on November 3, 1967. Architect V. Rokhin.
The monument is made of pink granite, the base and pedestal are faced with white marble slabs.

Born in Ukhta, D. Bushuev was a soldier of the Soviet Army serving far from his home in a small Siberian town. He died on June 28, 1965 fighting a fire in the taiga. In December 1965, the street where school No. 11 (the school he attended) was located was named after him.

Eshmes Cave Sanctuary of the 10th-11th centuries

Святилище «Эшмесская пещера» Х-ХI вв.
Eshmes Cave Sanctuary of the 10th-11th centuries

Location ― tributary of the Bely Eshmes River, Belaya Kedva Basin. Eshmes Cave was first mentioned in the 1920s. In the summer of 1965, archaeologist V. Luzgin tried to find Eshmes Cave. V. Torlopov born in Ukhta contributed to the reopening of this archaeological site. His perseverance helped to organize an archaeological expedition in 1981. In 1982, Eshmes Cave was excavated. As a result, archaeologist A. Murygin discovered a large number of beaver bones and skulls, 29 bone arrowheads, a flint arrowhead, 35 silver and bronze artefacts. Basically, they included pendants and plates, one image of the Perm animal style, two silver coins, one of them is Iranian coin dating to 946-47, the other one minted in Germany in 1002-24. Murygin also took a wooden idol dating to 890 from the cave. All the finds date from the 10th-11th centuries. Eshmes Cave was a family sanctuary, and the artefacts found during the excavations were offerings to wooden idols.

Passage shopping mall fire chapel

Часовня на месте пожара в торговом центре «Пассаж»
Passage shopping mall fire chapel

Located on Oktyabrskaya Street. Opened on July 11, 2011. The chapel was built in memory of the victims of the fire that took place on July 11, 2005. 25 people died in the fire.

Silhouette of Lenin's Head on Mount Vetlosyan

Силуэт В.И. Ленина, установленный на горе Ветлосян
Silhouette of Lenin's Head on Mount Vetlosyan

Made out of metal pipes. Height ― 33 meters. Built in 1970 on Mount Vetlosyan to mark the centenary of Lenin’s birthday.

Places to visit

Ukhta Museum of Local History

The Ukhta Museum of Local History founded in 1981 is located in a wooden building (built in 1935) at 5B Mira Street. The major Gulag exhibits were acquired in 1989-1991 in cooperation with the Ukhta and Pechora Memorial Association. The artefacts were mainly donated by local residents or found during the Memorial Association’s exploration. Since 1990, Gulag exhibits are included in the major exhibition “What Ukhta Began With” (sections “The First Gas Field”, “Combined Expedition of the Joint State Political Directorate, 1929”, “City Development”, “Industrial Development of the Territory”, “Gulag Theater”). The exhibition includes documents, camp items, installations, biographical information displayed on boards. 

Address: 5b Mira Street, Ukhta 
Tel: +7 (82147) 5-1674 

Shakhov Komi Culture Center Club

The Komi Culture Center boasts successful amateur performing bands, such as the Vizuv U Komi song ensemble, the Ukh-ty folk Russian song ensemble, the Hearts of Four vocal quartet, the Usttsilemochka folklore band, and the Radlun drama studio. Radlun studio is headed by Nikolay Parfentiev. In 2013, the theater celebrated its 5th anniversary. The theater has about 15 amateur actors and more than 25 plays in the Komi language. Over the 5 years, Radlun visited Syktyvkar, Sosnogorsk, Kedva, Kemdin, Sedya, Laikovo, Ust-Kulom District, which is the homeland of B. Shakhov. All amateur groups of the Komi Culture Center participate in out-of-town concerts and city events.

Address: 5a Pervomayskaya Street, Ukhta
Tel: +7 (8216) 73-27-70

Yarmarka Shopping Mall

The opening of Yarmarka, the largest shopping mall in Ukhta and the Komi Republic, took place on August 4, 2011. The mall is conveniently located at the intersection of Sevastopolskaya and Stroitelnaya Streets. You can use public transport or your car to get to the mall (1,000 space parking lot available). 

Address: 2a Stroitelnaya Street, Ukhta
E-mail: info@yarmarkauhta.ru

Our website: yarmarkauhta.ru

Fast facts

Ukhta is the birthplace of the first Russian oil.

Oil production was first mentioned in Russia in the 16th century. Travelers described how tribes living on the Ukhta River in the north of the Timan-Pechora region removed oil from the river surface to use it for medical purposes and as oils and lubricants. The oil removed from the surface of the Ukhta River was first delivered to Moscow in 1597.

In 1745, Fedor Pryadunov, prospector born in Arkhangelsk, founded the first Russian oil plant on the Ukhta River. Click here  http://firstoil.ugtu.net/en/ to visit the virtual museum Ukhta ― the Birthplace of the First Russian Oil. 

Ukhta is the only place in the world where radium, a rare radioactive element, was extracted not from ore, but from water, the so-called radium water industry. When drilling exploratory oil wells, salt water often found instead of oil was disregarded. However, it soon became clear that this water contains radium in concentrations sufficient for industrial production. In 1931, the first chemical plant was built, with the total number of plants eventually reaching 12. In 1934, the radium concentrate processing plant was put into operation. The final product, crystalline RaBr2, was produced. Prisoners working in the field were unaware of the radiation exposure health effects.

According to the Vodnensky Museum, over the course of the industry development, 416 wells were drilled, 296 of which produced water. The production of radium water finally ceased in 1953, with the plant shut down in the second half of 1956.

Directions

By air

There are regular flights from Syktyvkar, Moscow, St. Petersburg and to the towns of the Republic: Vorkuta, Usinsk, Vuktyl.

Flight schedule  komiaviatrans.ru 

Train

The area is crossed by a branch line of the Severnaya Railway (Northern Railway). You can get to the Ukhta railway station:

from Moscow ― by Moscow – Vorkuta train (travel time ― 27 h), Moscow – Labytnangi (travel time ― 27 h),Moscow – Sosnogorsk (travel time ― 29 h), from St. Petersburg ― by St. Petersburg ― Vorkuta train (travel time ― 33 h), from Syktyvkar ― by Syktyvkar ― Usinsk train (travel time ― 9 h 33 min), Syktyvkar-Pechora (travel time ― 8 h 59 min).

Bus

 

You can get from Syktyvkar to the cities and towns of the Komi Republic by buses Syktyvkar-Ukhta, Ufa-Ukhta, Syktyvkar-Vuktyl.There are buses running within the area and to neighboring towns. The routes include Troitsko-Pechorsk ― Ukhta, Sosnogorsk ― Ukhta,Ukhta ― Nizhny Odes ― Mitrofan, N. Odes ― Sosnogorsk ― Ukhta, Voy-Vozh ― Ukhta ― Sosnogorsk.