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Vorkuta

Summary

Administrative center: the city of Vorkuta

Area: 24,200 sq. km.

Bordering territories: Intinsky district of the Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk and Tyumen regions.

Population: 83,000.

Leading industries: coal mining, construction materials production, electric power industry 

Official website of the municipal district: Vorkuta. RF

Vorkuta city district is located in the North-Eastern part of the Komi Republic and borders the territories of Intinsky district of the Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk and Tyumen regions.

The territory of the current MO "City of Vorkuta" before 1780 belonged to the Pustozersky uyezd of the Arkhangelsk province, before 1891 – to the Mezen uyezd, from 1891 to 1921 – to the Pechorsky uyezd of the same province, in 1921-1929-to the Izhmo-Pechorsky uyezd of the Komi Autonomous region. In 1929, the southern part of this territory was included in the Izhmo-Pechorsky (since 1930 – Izhemsky) district of the Komi Autonomous region, and the Northern part (including the area of the present city of Vorkuta) – in the Nenets national district. From March 1932 from the composition of the Izhma district was selected to Ust Usinsk district, which included the areas of modern settlements Sivomaskinskiy, Yelets, Seyda. The lands in the upper reaches of the USA and upper reaches of the Vorkuta belonged to the Bolshezemelsky district Council of the Nenets district.

For a long time, Nenets reindeer herders roamed these places. From the Nenets language, the word "Vorkuta" is translated as "bear's place, bear's corner" or "a place teeming with bears". The first permanent small settlements founded by the Komi-izhemites appeared in the upper reaches of the USA at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries: Yelets, Nikita and some others. On the banks of the Vorkuta river, known since the second half of the XVIII century, villages appeared even later, only in the 1930s, when the development of a coal Deposit began. In June 1930, geologist G. A. Chernov climbed the Vorkuta river and found working layers of coal 77 km from its mouth. In 1931 The Presidium of the VTSIK decided to create a new industry in the Komi Republic – coal. In 1932, the first experimental-industrial mine No. 1/2 was laid on the right Bank of the Vorkuta river in the place where the village of Rudnik later developed. In September 1934, the mine produced the first industrial coal, which was the beginning of industrial development of the vorkutinsky coal field and the Pechora coal basin as a whole.

In 1937-1942, on the left Bank of the Vorkuta river, the construction of pit No. 1 "Kapitalnaya" was carried out - the first truly industrial enterprise of the Pechora coal basin. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on January 9, 1940, the village of this mine was transformed into the village of Vorkuta in Bolshezemelsky district (the center is in the village of Hosedo-Hard) Nenets national district of the Arkhangelsk region. And in October of the same year, it was transferred to the Kozhvinsky district of the Komi ASSR.

On November 26, 1943, the village of Vorkuta was transformed into the city of Vorkuta by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.

In the late 1930s and early 1950s, one of the largest Gulag camps, Vorkutlag (until 1938, Ukhtpechlag), was located in Vorkuta.

During the two post-war decades, the territory of the current city district "Vorkuta" acquired a modern outline. In 1953 The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Komi ASSR in connection with the request of the local population and the consent of the Tyumen region decided to list the localities of Polyarny, Harbey and Khanmey of the Yelets possovet in the Yamalo-Nenets national district of the Tyumen region. In 1957 Canovacci, Ust ' -Vorkuta and Yeletsky the village Council were brought from INTA district to the subordination of the Vorkuta city Council.

November 18, 1959 The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Komi ASSR decided to accept the proposal of the Arkhangelsk regional Executive Committee on the transfer of the working village of Khalmer-Yu to the adjacent area of occurrence of the coal seam from Bolshezemelskaya district of Nenets national district city Council in Vorkuta, Komi ASSR. On November 23, 1959, the corresponding decision was made by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.

 

Attractions

Relic mountain spruce forest on the ridge Engane-PE

Реликтовый горный ельник на хребте Енгане-Пэ

A unique relict plant community for the region, a kind of "forest island" among the tundra. At the moment , this is the only known section of spruce forest so far to the North. The spruce forest covers the foot of the "southern" mountain in the form of a Crescent, its length from West to East is 6 km. Along the Western and Eastern borders, the spruce forest is thinned, first taking the form of woodlands, and then – redins. This forest area is completely isolated from the Northern limit of the forest tundra and is surrounded only by mountain and plain tundras.

The total area of the spruce forest is 300 ha. The age of spruce trees is 300-350 years, the height of trees reaches 15-16 m.

Rock canyon on the Nia-Yu river

Скальный каньон на реке Ния-Ю

At the beginning of the canyon, strong layers of rock form waterfalls, rapids, narrow gorges and whirlpools. The river breaks out of the mountains, heads West and flows among low coastal terraces. Along the banks of the river there are rock outcrops of Devonian limestones, in which you can find traces of extinct animals. Of particular value is the rock floral complex, the abundance of animal life. Against the mouth of the left tributary of Neu – handles. Jobaction canyon ends in a waterfall, formed by several steps of the formations exposed in the river bed rocks.

It is about 5 km long, 20-25 m wide and 15-20 m high.

Geological monument "Vorkutinsky»

Геологический памятник «Воркутинский»

It is a rock outcrop of lower Permian rocks. It has historical and scientific significance. After special surveys conducted in 2006 by the staff of the Institute of Geology of Komi NC Uro RAS, the position of the monument was clarified and its current state was examined. It is proposed to create a historical and natural geological Park on the site of the monument to preserve the memory of the geologists-discoverers, the place where the first tons of Vorkuta coal were extracted. Above the outcrop is the geologists memorial cemetery

Height up to 4-5 m, length of outcrops 200-300 m.

Geological monument "Tambeiskoe rocks »

Геологический памятник «Пембойские скалы»
A range of rock precipices, extending in a chain from South-West to North-East for 7 km. On the fifth cliff is the highest point of Pemboya (430 m), from the top of which a circular panorama of the landscapes of the Bolshezemelskaya tundra and the Polar Urals opens. The rocks are composed of black conglomerates and form peculiar forms of weathering: whimsical figures in the form of towers, columns, pillars. Rare species of birds nest on the rocks.
 

Waterfall on the river Halmer-Yu

Водопад на р. Хальмер-Ю
The waterfall on the Halmer-Yu river is a hydrological natural monument, the largest in the Komi Republic and one of the largest in the European part of Russia. The waterfall on the Halmer river is an aesthetically valuable natural object. The waterfall has three steps, located directly under each other. The total height of the water drop is 10 m.

Marsh monument of nature "At the farm, Yun-Yaga»

Болотный памятник природы «У фермы Юнь-Яга»

The swamp nature monument of national significance "At Yun-Yaga farm" is an undisturbed swamp system, which is one of the northernmost Eastern European AAPA-swamps. It is characterized not only by a high diversity of plant communities, but also by a rich species composition, the presence of valuable species of birds and mammals.

Valleys of the Pymvashor stream

Долины ручья Пымвашор
Valley with thermal mineral springs. The only such sources in the Far North of the European part of Russia. There are two types of mineral waters on Pymvashor. These are waters of the Mirgorod type of medicinal table of sodium chloride composition, used for the treatment of gastritis, colitis, liver diseases, metabolic diseases, and radon-radium mineral waters used for taking Wellness procedures in flowing pools. The value of the sources is also determined by the content of bioactive components in the water - bromine, fluorine, iodine, and silicic acids.

Nature reserve on the Sea-Yu river

Природный заказник на реке Море-ю
The main value of the reserve territory is the presence of a relict island spruce forest within the tundra zone, which was isolated from the main area of Siberian spruce during the Subboreal Holocene period (5-4.5 thousand years ago). Spruce grows in separate groups and is confined to the well-warmed slopes of the indigenous banks of the old and new riverbed, mainly the southern exposure. Forest island is of exceptional interest for studying the formation of the flora of the region and the phenomenon of the existence of a fragment of dark-coniferous taiga outside its main range.

Stele in honor of A. A. Chernov

Стела в честь А.А. Чернова

A memorial sign in honor of a Russian and Soviet scientist and geologist. The discoverer of the Pechora coal basin, the Hero of socialist labor Alexander Alexandrovich Chernov. The opening was attended by the Professor's son, Georgy Chernov. The monument is a rectangular slab, in the upper part of the stele-through sculptural image of AA Chernov at work.

Victims of political repression 30-50 years

Жертвам политических репрессии 30–50 гг.

This memorial sign marks the place where a monument to the victims of political repression will appear. Installed at the expense of enterprises of the city of Vorkuta in 1989.

Sign «67th parallel» 

Знак «67-я параллель»

The sign serves a decorative function, and also indicates the geographical location of the city beyond the 67th parallel. Made at the Vorkuta mechanical plant, installed in 1983.

 

Places to visit

Vorkuta Interdistrict Museum of local lore

It was founded in 1960. the Museum's collections include: archaeological, numismatics, written sources, and ethnographic.

Address: 38 Lenin street, Vorkuta

Tel. (82151) 3-31-36; 3-34-79

Vorkuta state drama theater

The history of the Vorkuta theater is unique in its own way. Created at the height of the war, under the conditions of the Gulag, the theater received the status of a professional theater before Vorkuta itself became a city. The craving for the beautiful is ineradicable even in inhuman conditions. It coincided with the desire to create a northern theater of the head of Vorkutlag, General M. Maltsev. Among the then prisoners of Vorkuta were outstanding musicians, singers, famous conductors, actors and ... then already the "former" chief director of the Bolshoi Theater of the USSR, Honored Artist of the RSFSR Boris Mordvinov. In August 1943, a corresponding order was signed, and on October 1, the Vorkuta Theater was opened with Imre Kalman's operetta "Silva". N.I. Glebova, V.M. Pyaskovskaya, B.C. Deineka, A.K. Stoyano, V.A. Kozin, the Pilatskys. According to the project of the architect Lunev, a theater building of remarkable beauty and scenic potential was built.

Address: Vorkuta, pl. Jubilee, 1.

Tel.: 8 (82151) 31265
E-mail: vorkteatrdr@mail.ru

Website: teatr.vorcuta.info

 

Komi Republican State Puppet Theater

Beyond the Arctic Circle, in the city of permafrost - Vorkuta, the only puppet theater in the republic has been delighting children and adults with its art for more than half a century. The theater was given the official professional status in 1955.

Address: Vorkuta, pl. Mira, 1.

Tel.: 8- (82151) 3-52-41

E-mail: teatrv@bk.ru

Website: dollvorkuta.rf

 

Cinema "Cascade"

Address: Vorkuta, Central Square, 1

Tel .: 8 (821) 516-03-03

VK: vk.com/kaskadkino

Fast facts

Vorkuta (in Komi "Vorkuta") is located in the Bolshezemelskaya tundra, in the permafrost zone, about 150 kilometers north of the Arctic Circle and only 140 kilometers from the coast of the Arctic Ocean. In May 2014, by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, Vorkuta was included in the land territories of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.

Within the boundaries of the urban district "Vorkuta" there is Mamontova Kurya (after the name of the village), the oldest site of modern humans in the European Arctic, dating back to 37.5 thousand years.

The site is located at 67 degrees north latitude, in the Arctic (beyond the Arctic Circle), on the banks of the Usa River. During excavations at Mamontovaya Kurye, more than a hundred bones of various animals were found - horses, reindeer, wolves. An arrowhead was found stuck in one of the bones, and a clear pattern was found on the mammoth's tusk in the form of deep incisions made obliquely by two pointed stone tools of different breeds. The age of the tusk, according to radiocarbon research, is about 40 thousand years. No human remains were found in the parking lot.

Directions

Plane
Vorkuta is connected with air traffic with Syktyvkar, Ukhta, Moscow, Cherepovets.

Flight schedule komiaviatrans.ru 

Bus / road transport
The road network is poorly developed. There is no bus service with other cities of the republic.

Train
The railway line connects Vorkuta with the central regions of Russia, as well as with Western Siberia. The distance from Syktyvkar to the "capital of the Arctic" is 1,030 km.

You can get to Vorkuta:

from Moscow - by train "Moscow - Vorkuta" (travel time 47 h)

from Syktyvkar - by train "Syktyvkar - Vorkuta" (travel time 30 h)

from St. Petersburg by train "St. Petersburg - Vorkuta" (travel time 49 hours)