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TOURIST SECURITY

A tour will be comfortable and safe if you follow the recommendations of lifeguards.

The procedure for the registration of tourist groups 

The EMERCOM Main Office for the Republic of Komi recommends that tourist groups and individual tourists register and inform the EMERCOM of their route. 

It is advisable to register at the search and rescue unit closest to the travel route no later than 15 days before taking the route. You can register and attend safety-awareness briefings at the SPAS-Komi branches or at the Syktyvkar and Vorkuta branches of the Northwestern Regional Search and Rescue Unit of the EMERCOM of Russia. 

Inform about your intention to go on a tourist expedition by calling: 01, via a mobile phone ― 112, and also by calling the single “Helpline” of the EMERCOM Main Office for the Republic of Komi ― (8212) 29-99-99. You can also inform the administration of the municipality located in the travel area. At the same time, a group leader submits an application for a tourist event. 

The application must specify:

- name, address, telephone number of an organization;

- start and end dates of the tourism event; 

- the route with starting, intermediate and final points, control points of the route and its time estimated; 

- emergency exit route; 

- procedure of communication with the group on the route; 

- technical equipment of the group, including personal rescue equipment; 

- the number of tourists expected, their citizenship, place of residence; 

- surname, name, patronymic of a group leader, their deputy, availability of an instructor and a medical worker, their phone numbers. 

A safe route includes appropriate equipment, communications devices ― a satellite phone (there is no signal in the mountains), GPS navigation, route documents, food supplies, medicine, a first-aid kit, warm sleeping bags, a device for heating food and tea ― the Primus stoves, burners, hunting matches (they burn in the water), lights.

After the group leaves the route, but no later than the deadline announced for the event, be sure to notify rescuers about the end of the trip.

Group camping trip message form (for the EMERCOM of Russia)

Sun Safety 

Neglecting sun safety precautions cause serious health consequences. Therefore, remember the advice of rescuers on how to behave in hot weather: 

- avoid sun exposure during the peak hours of 12 a.m. to 4 p.m. At this time, it is desirable to protect all parts of the body with clothing made from natural fabrics; 

- protect your head from the sun by hats, panama, headscarf or umbrellas; 

- avoid synthetic clothing. Synthetics avoid the respiration of skin and can lead to overheating of the body; 

- try to minimize the use of cosmetics, or even avoid it during a hot summer. Cosmetics close skin pores, resulting in overheating of the body; 

- try to take a shower more often to refresh the body and cleanse the skin from pollution and sweat; 

- drink more water. You should drink at least 2 liters of water on a hot summer day. It is better to quench your thirst with warm water. Drinking cold drinks in hot weather, you can get hypothermia of the respiratory tract, followed by tonsillitis or even pneumonia; 

- it is advisable to avoid active sports at temperatures above 25 degrees. Morning or evening hours are the best time to go for a run; 

- in hot weather, it is better to decrease energy consumption trying to reduce the amount of food, especially fatty one; 

- it is advisable to abandon the use of alcoholic drinks as their effect on the body is multiplied on hot summer days; 

- smokers should be aware that during smoking in hot weather, development of blood clots almost doubles. Try to smoke as little as possible in hot weather. 

Try to keep calm in hot weather as any overexcitement can increase your risk for heat or sun stroke. 

The first symptoms of overheating are fatigue, weakness, drowsiness. In case of heat stroke, there may be ringing in the ears, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, headache, frequent breathing. Body temperature may rise to 41 degrees during sun and heat stroke. 

How to help a person suffering from heat stroke? First of all, move them to a shade or cooler place. Raise the victim’s head to improve blood flow. You need to take their clothes off and douse a person with cool water or wrap them in a drip sheet. You can put a drip cool compress on their head. Give the victim more drink ― mineral water or strong sweet tea. In any case, you should seek emergency medical care by calling the single number "112" or "03". Ambulance can give advice directly by phone. 

Preventing tick bites  

1. Before going to the forest or a nature trip, use special  repellents. 

2. Do not get into impassable forests with low-growing shrubs (raspberries, alder, hazel, etc.) without special need. Avoid dry, dead branches ― ticks are found in dead wood more often than in living trees. 

3. When going down a forest road, don’t break branches (ticks from the main bush can fall on you). 

4. Legs should be fully covered (don’t wear shorts). Sweatpants, tights (preferably with a smooth surface) should be tucked into socks.

5. Be sure to wear a hat (cap, scarf). 

6. It is advisable to cover long hair with a hat. 

7. Spending time in forest, examine your clothing and open skin areas and those of your companions each hour. 

8. After going to the forest, shake off your outer clothing and underwear. Be sure to check the bouquets, bags, baskets, as well as cats and dogs, if you took them with you. 

9. Comb your hair with a fine tooth comb. 

If you found a tick, you need first to contact the nearest healthcare center to remove and deliver it to the virology laboratory. A tick-borne encephalitis virus study will be conducted in the laboratory This study is necessary to address the issue of timely emergency prevention of tick-borne viral encephalitis using human immunoglobulin, which is administered no later than 96 hours after tick suction. 

The study is carried out by the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the capital of the Komi Republic: 71 Ordzhonikidze, Syktyvkar. Tel: 8(8212) 21-87-30. 

If you decide to remove the tick yourself, then do this as follows:

1. In no case do not pull the tick, as you can tear off the body from the head (the head can exist without the body). 

2. It is necessary to fill the tick with camphor or vegetable oil and carefully pull it out with tweezers after 10-15 minutes. 

3. Apply iodine or brilliant green to the bite site. 

- Contact your nearest healthcare center immediately.

During a thunderstorm

The primary danger during a thunderstorm is lightning. These are powerful electric discharges that have a high voltage, a current rate of hundreds of thousands of amperes and a very high temperature ― up to 25,000 degrees. Instant lightning strike can cause paralysis, deep loss of consciousness, respiratory and heart arrest.  

Lightnings are divided into linear, pearl and ball. 

Most often, lightning strikes an open area or a lonely standing tree, less often a room and even less often a forest, so when approaching a thunderstorm front, you need to stop in advance and find a safe place.

In an apartment, house, building.

If you are at home during a thunderstorm, do not get close to wiring, antennas, close windows, turn off the TV, radio and other household appliances and do not touch metal objects. 

In a private house, a heating furnace is especially dangerous during a thunderstorm, since the smoke coming out of the chimney has high electrical conductivity and can attract an electric discharge. 

Eliminate drafts in the house, close windows, chimneys tightly, disconnect electrical appliances from power sources, disconnect the outdoor antenna, do not settle down by the window, stove, fireplace, massive metal objects, on the roof and in the attic. 

In the forest 

Take cover in the forest among low trees with dense crowns. It is dangerous to be at the edges, large glades, in places where water flows during a thunderstorm. 

Do not look for protection under the crowns of tall or detached trees, do not lean against their trunks, as a direct hit of lightning in a tree can break it into chips and injure people standing nearby. 

Do not settle around by the fire: a column of hot air is a good conductor of electricity. Do not climb tall trees. The safest place in the forest will be a lowland with an array of low trees. 

In the open

In an open area, you should hide from a thunderstorm in dry pits, ditches, ravines. But if these areas are filled with water, it is better to leave them. Make sure that you are not at the highest point in the neighborhood, since it is the place where lightning strikes most often. 

Do not settle down near metal fences, supports of power lines and under wires, do not go barefoot, do not hide in uninhabited single huts or barns. Stop sports games and movements and go to cover. 

By water 

During a thunderstorm, do not swim, do not settle down in the immediate vicinity of a reservoir, or sail. If you are near the water and see a thunderstorm approaching, immediately move away from the shore. In no case do not try to hide in the bushes. 

In transport

If you're caught in a storm while driving, do not leave car, while closing the windows and lower the antenna of the radio. Stop driving and wait out the storm on the roadside or in the parking lot, away from tall trees. A bicycle and a motorcycle can be potentially dangerous at this time. Lay them on the ground and move to a distance of at least 30 meters.

Ball lightning

Little is known about ball lightning, but the main thing is to learn what to do when facing this phenomenon. Seeing ball lightning in an open area, slowly move away from it, without making sudden movements. If you are indoors, leave the room slowly. Lie down on the floor, hide under a table or bed and wait. 

Do not try to drive it away, because ball lightning struck by objects most often explodes. An explosion of ball lightning can lead to a fire. 

On water: 

The main reasons for the tragedies are drinking before swimming, swimming in places that are prohibited or not equipped for the purpose, failure to observe basic safety measures in water bodies, and the inability to provide first aid to victims. 

To stay safe, do not swim in unknown and inappropriate waters or alone, do not drink and swim, do not dive in places with unknown bottom topography, do not swim beyond the end buoys, do not swim far from the beach if you have any chronic illnesses, do not leave children unattended in the water

Do not: 

- swim in places where signs are displayed with warnings and prohibitions;. 

- swim in unequipped, unfamiliar places; 

- swim beyond the end buoys; 

- approach motor, sailing vessels, rowing boats and other water sports equipment;  

- jump into water from boats, motorboats, moorings and structures not adapted for the purpose; 

- pollute and defile water bodies; 

- drink alcohol, swim while intoxicated; 

- bring dogs and other animals with you; 

- leave paper, glass and other rubbish at the beach, in wardrobes and dressing rooms; 

- play with a ball or sports games in places not designated for the purpose, play tricks in water associated with diving and capture of swimmers; 

- raise a false alarm; 

- swim on boards, logs, sunbeds, automobile inner tubes, air mattresses. 

Emergency action plan: 

- approach the victim from behind. If it’s impossible, dive under the victim, grabbing the person with your left hand under the knee of the right leg, and push the left knee forward with the palm of your right hand and turn them back;

- pass your hand under the right arm of the drowning person gripping their hand and shoulder tightly, float with the victim; 

- drag the victim into a safe place. 

 

Ways to drag the victim: 

First 

1. Support the victim’s chin and lower jaw with both hands. 

2. Swim on your back doing the breast stroke with leg movements.

Second

1. Put your hand in the back under the hand of the victim. 

2. Grab the jaw with the fingers of this hand. 

3. Do the breast stroke or swim on your side, making movements with your free hand or legs. 

 

Third (if the drowning person is resisting)

1. Put your hand behind the arm of the victim. 

2. Grab the further arm above the elbow. 

3. Do the breast stroke or swim on your side, making movements with your free hand. 

First Aid: 

- Put the victim face down on your knee and press on the back, splash out water from the lungs and stomach. If the victim has a large body weight, you can simply put them on their stomach. 

- Check the pulse, breathing of the victim, if there is none, conduct resuscitation measures: 

1. Place the victim on a firm, level surface.

2. Clean the victim’s mouth with a finger wrapped in a handkerchief.

3. Bend the victim’s head as much as possible, move the lower jaw forward and open their mouth, take a deep breath and exhale air through a scarf or other tissue into the victim’s mouth. In this case, you should hold their nose.

In the absence of heartbeat, artificial respiration is combined with external continuous heart massage: you need to press on the sternum of the victim with the wrists of both hands by 3-5 cm. The pressure is made with straightened hands, laying them one on top of the other. Apply 4-5 rhythmic pressures after each inflation